Evaluation of residual insecticides and long-lasting, insecticide-impregnated materials to control adult sand flies in Iraq and Kenya
Gabriela E. Zollner, firstname.lastname@example.org, John L. Putnam2, Jason H. Richardson3, and Russell Coleman1. (1) Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Dept of Entomology, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD, (2) Air Force Institute for Operational Health, Dept of Medical Zoology, 2513 Kennedy Circle, Bldg 180, Brooks AFB, San Antonio, TX, (3) US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya, Dept of Entomology, KEMRI, P.O Box 29893, Nairobi, Kenya
Currently there are no vaccines or prophylactic drugs to protect military personnel against leishmaniasis, so the only method available is to prevent bites from infected phlebotomine sand flies. The goal of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of residual insecticides and novel long-lasting, insecticide-impregnated materials to control adult sand flies. An aggressive prevention and control program was initiated in Iraq (former Tallil Air Base) in 2004, with additional field studies in Kenya (Baringo District) in 2005-06. The efficacy of malathion, cyfluthrin or resmethrin, applied by residual application or ULV fogging, was evaluated to control local sand fly populations in treated or non-treated areas. In addition, deltamethrin- or permethrin-treated netting materials or plastic sheets were evaluated in comparison with non-treated materials. In all studies, CDC light traps, unbaited (Iraq) or baited with dry ice (Kenya), were used to collect sand flies in sprayed areas, over insecticide-treated floorings, or within treated bed nets and other barrier materials. Malathion and resmethrin reduced, but did not eliminate, sand flies in sprayed areas for a short period. Light traps inside treated bed nets or external barriers caught fewer sand flies than non-treated bed nets or barriers, though living sand flies were still discovered in light traps 2-6 hours after passing through treated bed nets with different mesh sizes and insecticide treatments. Treated floorings did not reduce numbers of sand flies caught in light traps. In Iraq, the control program had minimal impact on sand fly populations and did little to protect soldiers from leishmaniasis. The results of these studies are discussed in the context of improving methods to control adult sand flies.
Species 1: Diptera Psychodidae Phlebotomuspapatasi Species 2: Diptera Psychodidae Phlebotomusmartini Species 3: Diptera Psychodidae Phlebotomusduboscqi