RNA interference in mosquitoes is an important innate immune defense against arbovirus infection
Brian D. Foy, email@example.com, Rodman Tompkins, Kimberly Keene, Carol D. Blair, Kenneth E. Olson, and Corey L. Campbell. Colorado State University, Arthropod Borne Infectious Diseases Lab, Department of Microbiology Immunology & Pathology, 1682 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO
Vector innate immunity is an important component of determining vector competence for arboviruses. We are defining molecular pathways that mosquitoes use to limit arboviral dissemination and characterizing real-time alphavirus/mosquito interactions by employing recombinant fluorescent protein-producing alphaviruses. We have shown that the RNAi pathway proteins Dicer-2 and Argonaute-2 are key in limiting the spread of O’nyong-nyong virus throughout Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes and of Sindbis virus throughout Aedes aegypti and Culex spp. mosquitoes. Artificial silencing of these proteins through the administration of exogenous double-stranded RNAs causes significant increases in viral replication and dissemination in these mosquitoes. Furthermore, silencing of the RNA interference pathway also causes significantly higher mortality in virus-fed adults presumably because virus spreads unchecked through these mosquitoes as compared with controls. Natural fluctuations in Dicer-2, Argonaute-2, and Tudor SN transcipts were also assessed by quantitative PCR after oral infection with one of four viruses representing three arbovirus families. Most transcripts exhibited variable fluctuations; however, Dengue-2 virus significantly induced Dicer-2 and Argonaute-2 transcription in Aedes aegypti midguts 1 day post-infection. Our data demonstrates that RNA interference is a primary innate immune defense employed by many mosquitoes against alphaviruses.
Species 1: Diptera Culicidae Aedesaegypti Species 2: Diptera Culicidae Anophelesgambiae Species 3: Diptera Culicidae Culexpipiens
From Br. Sergio Montaner, Teacher assistant and researcher, University of Carabobo - Venezuela, February 28, 2008 Dear Professor Brian Foy.
Before all the words in this letter i want to congratulate you for all your work and publications in the investigative field, it's an Honor write this letter for you.
Professor, my name is Sergio Montaner, I'm a Biology student in the University of Carabobo in Venezuela and in this moment I'm doing my Special Degree investigation. This is a requirement for me to graduate as a Biologist. Right now, I'm working with Dengue Virus and Aedes aegypti, studying the immune response of this vector to the viral infection and the activation of the Dicer-2 and Ago-2 RNases and the RISC complex. Because of this, i would like to ask you a favor. In 2006 you published with other investigators a presentation in the annual metting of the Entomology Society titled "RNA interference in mosquitoes is an important innate immune defense against arbovirus infection". Because i dont have access to this paper neither the resources to donwload it, i want to ask you as a great favor, if you could send me a copy of this paper, because i know that the information of your investigation can be an important piece of my special degree investigation.
I would really really thank you if you could do this for me, it would be a great help of you.
Thank you in advance, yours sincerely.
Br. Sergio Montaner
Science and Technology Faculty
University of Carabobo - Venezuela