Current guidelines for control of alien western yellowjackets (Vespula pensylvanica) in Hawaii specify the use of the now discontinued KnoxOut®2FM, a microencapsulated formulation of diazinon, mixed with chicken-meat,in bait stations. We have documented mortality of non-target species, including endemic invertebrates, during toxic baiting for yellowjacket control. Most (>90%) of the non-target species attracted to chicken-meat in bait stations were flies (Diptera), especially Calliphoridae, but also Sarcophagidae, Lonchaeidae, Drosophilidae, Sciaridae, and Anisopodidae. These included endemic flies such as the calliphorid Dyscritomyia fasciata, and two species of rare picture-wing flies (Drosophila engyochracea and D.
hawaiiensis). The latter two have been found dead on KnoxOut® 2FM baits. Control of alien yellowjacket wasp populations has been identified as one of the highest priorities for the recovery of endemic arthropod
biodiversity in Hawaii. Future substitutes for KnoxOut® 2FM must be evaluated for non-target mortality of native insects.
Species 1: Hymenoptera Vespidae (yellowjackets)
Keywords: non-target species, baits
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