Use of bioassays and microplate assays to detect insecticide resistance in field populations of Culex pipiens (Culicidae: Diptera) from filariasis endemic areas of Egypt
Abdel Baset Zayed, firstname.lastname@example.org, Daniel Szumlas, SzumlasD@namru3.org2, Hanafi Hanafi, HanafiH@namru3.org2, Azza Mostafa, email@example.com, Kamilia Alam, firstname.lastname@example.org, and William Brogdon, email@example.com. (1) Al-Azhar University, Zoology Depertment, Assiut Branch, Assiut, Egypt, (2) U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three, Vector Biology Research Program, Extension of Ramses Street, Adjacent to Abbassia Fevers Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, (3) Research Institute of Medical Entomology, Insecticide Department, 1 El Mathaf El Zerae Street, Doki, Giza, Egypt, (4) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA
Insecticide resistance bioassays and microplate assays were performed on Culexpipiens mosquitoes to determine the level and mechanisms of resistance. Culexpipiens larvae were collected from three filariasis endemic areas of Egypt and reared to adults for subsequent production and testing of F1 generation larvae and adults. Bioassays were performed using WHO methods with the diagnostic doses of 6 organophosphate insecticides for larvae and 1 organochlorine, 4 pyrethroid, 2 organophosphate, and 2 carbamate insecticides for adults. Microplate assays were performed to measure levels of beta esterase, acetylcholine esterase, insensitive acetylcholine esterase, oxidases and glutathione-s-transferase enzymes. Larval boassay results showed clear indications of resistance to organophosphate insecticides. Adult bioassays also showed widespread, significant resistance to many insecticides from all four classes, including the organochlorine, DDT. The Qalubiya larval population was susceptible only to malathion, while Sharkiya larvae were susceptible to malathion, temephos and chlorpyrifos. On the other hand, larval specimens from Assiut were resistant to all insecticides used. Larval bioassay results were supported by those of microplate assays in showing elevated levels of glutathione s-transferase in populations from all three areas. In general, microplate results confirmed patterns of resistance observed using bioassays, and mechanisms of resistance were evident for all three areas sampled. Mechanisms of resistance are discussed in relation to microplate and bioassay results for the areas sampled and pesticides used.
Species 1: Diptera Culicidae Culexpipiens (mosquitoes) Keywords: Insecticide resistance, Enzymes