All worker bees exhibited sleep (i.e., state of relative immobility while discontinuously ventilating). Mapping sleep spatially: As bees aged, they slept more outside of comb cells than inside cells. Bees slept closer to the edge of the hive when outside of cells and slept closer to the central brood comb when inside cells. Mapping sleep temporally: The youngest worker bees slept arrhythmically, and older bees slept primarily at night. When asleep, foragers’ temperature decreased, and did not differ between day and night or with respect to location in the hive.
Understanding where and when different castes within a society sleep is the starting point from which to understand sleep and its impact on the behavior and ecology of societies, and the societally-based purpose(s) of sleep. Thermal and behavioral maps of honey bees may serve as a new means of scientifically visualizing sleep within a society.
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