Integrating biological, chemical and genetic controls in decision making for sweet corn
Fred R. Musser, email@example.com, Mississippi State University, Entomology and Plant Pathology, PO Box 9775, Mississippi State, MS, Jan Nyrop, firstname.lastname@example.org, Cornell University, Dept. of Entomology, NYS Agric. Expt. Sta, 630 W. North St, Geneva, NY, and Anthony Shelton, email@example.com, Cornell University, Department of Entomology, P.O.Box 462, 630 W. North St, Geneva, NY.
As growers switch to transgenic crops and selective insecticides that are less toxic to natural enemies, natural enemies can become more important in agricultural pest management. Current decision-making guides are generally based on pest abundance and do not address pest and natural enemy toxicity differences among insecticides or the impact of natural enemies on pest survival. A refined approach to making pest management decisions is to include the impact of natural enemies and insecticides, thereby better integrating biological and chemical control. The result of this integration is a dynamic threshold that varies for each product and the level of biological control expected. To demonstrate the significance of conserved biological control in commercial production, a decision-making guide was developed that evaluates control options for European corn borer in sweet corn. Management options include a broad-spectrum insecticide, a selective insecticide, a parasitoid, and a transgenic variety. Treatment cost is the primary factor separating the threshold for each treatment within a common scenario. However, when the impact of a treatment on natural enemies is projected over a 3-wk control period, the impact of the treatment on predators becomes the key factor in determining the threshold, so the lowest thresholds are for broad-spectrum treatments, while selective products can have thresholds more than six times higher by the third wk. This decision guide can serve as a framework to help focus future integrated pest management research and to aid in the selection of pest management tools.
Species 1: Lepidoptera Crambidae Ostrinianubilalis (European corn borer) Species 2: Coleoptera Coccinellidae Coleomegillamaculata Species 3: Hemiptera Anthocoridae Oriusinsidiosus (insidious flower bug)