Alkaline phosphatase as a biomarker for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins
Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes, firstname.lastname@example.org, University of Tennessee, Dept of Entomology & Plant Pathology, 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, 205 Ellington Plant Sciences Building, Knoxville, TN, Stephen F. Garczynski, email@example.com, USDA-ARS, Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory, 5230 Konnowac Pass Road, Wapato, WA, William J. Moar, firstname.lastname@example.org, Auburn University, 301 Funchess Hall, Auburn, AL, and Michael J. Adang, email@example.com, University of Georgia, Dept of Entomology, 413 Bio Sci Bldg, Cedar St, Athens, GA.
We previously reported identification of an alkaline phosphatase (HvALP) that bound Cry1Ac toxin in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from Heliothis virescens. Both alkaline phosphatase-specific activity and HvALP protein levels were reduced in Cry1Ac-resistant larvae from three independent Cry1Ac-resistant strains of H. virescens. Similarly, reduced alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in BBMV from alterations in alkaline phosphatase as a marker for resistance to Cry toxins, at least for these two insect species.
Species 1: Lepidoptera Noctuidae Heliothisvirescens (tobacco budworm) Species 2: Lepidoptera Noctuidae Spodopteraexigua
From Hamdy K. Abou-Taleb, Researcher, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt, November 16, 2006 From my readings I have knew that resistant of insects against Bacillus thuringiensis refers to 1. the changes in the proteases activity, 2. the changes in the pH of the insect midgut, 3.the alteration in the receptors sensetivity on the BBMV to the activated toxins, and 4. the changes in the Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Also, I have knew that APs play a vital role in the phosphate metabolism.
My question is, what is the relation between the mode of action of Bt and the APs activity?