Emulsified wax dispensers (EWDs) are primarily composed of wax emulsified in water. Vitamin E and oil are added to reduce release rates and protect pheromones from oxidation. Atterholt (1996) first developed these dispensers for Grapholita molesta (Busck) pheromone (Z8-12:Ac) using paraffin wax. In 2002, we developed and field tested a modified G. molesta paraffin wax EWD dispenser. EWD II-OFM was effective for as long as Isomate-M 100 ropes (Shin-Etsu Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). By increasing the size and decreasing the surface area to volume ratio of EWD II-OFM dispensers, we have enhanced the performance of this formulation. In current studies, we are altering the composition of the EWD II-OFM formulation to further improve the release rate profile of this class of dispensers. We also have initiated efforts to develop an effective EWD dispenser for Cydia pomonella (L.) pheromone (E8E10-12:OH). The smaller molecular weight of this compound creates a challenge for developing a suitable EWD-CM dispenser. EWDs have many potential advantages over currently available hand-applied pheromone formulations: they are likely to be cheaper to produce than current commercial products, they can be applied quickly using a cheap, simple applicator, and they are biodegradable. Our aim is to tap the potential of these dispensers as controlled-release devices for semiochemicals.
Species 1: Lepidoptera Tortricidae Grapholita molesta (oriental fruit moth)
Species 2: Lepidoptera Tortricidae Cydia pomonella (codling moth)
Keywords: pheromone dispenser, emulsified wax dispenser
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