Neotropical swarm-founding wasps represent a perfect subject for studying morphological skew theory, because caste differentiation differs from null to complete dimorphism and worker reproduction is widespread. In some cases, morphological skew theory applies to these wasps because some species present small colony size, slight or indistinct morphological differences and all individuals present consistent ovarian development, and other species present larger colony, well-distinct castes based on allometric differences and worker sterility. However, some unusual patterns were found in these wasps. For example, some species have large colony size, allometric caste differences but non-inseminated layers are found. On the other side, some species present small colony size, low caste differentiation, but complete sterility in workers.
Species 1: Hymenoptera Vespidae Agelaia timida
Species 2: Hymenoptera Vespidae Brachygastra scutellaris
Species 3: Hymenoptera Vespidae Polybia scutellaris
Keywords: social behavior, colony size
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