This paper incorporates stink bug pheromone technology, phenology modeling and direct canopy sampling in California processing tomatoes. Three commercial fields were sampled weekly, from June through September, 2002, using pheromone traps and canopy shake samples to monitor Euschistus conspersus in early and late maturing fields. Peak trap catch occurred between June 13th and 18th, attracting a higher proportion of reproductive females than males; with trap catch high relative to surrounding canopy samples. Trap peaks were tested as a degree-day biofix from which to accumulate heat units and predict nymphal hatch within the field. At approximately 310 degree-days Celsius, 1st-2nd instar nymphs were recovered in shake samples, initiating a spray trial to increase reduced-risk insecticide efficacy against E. conspersus by targeting the softer cuticled, more susceptible nymphal stages. Treatments included an untreated control, an organophosphate standard, a pyrethroid, and a neonicotinoid + pyrethroid combination timed to nymphal hatch. In the late maturing field, a fifth treatment compared the organophosphate standard at nymphal hatch with a later season adult treatment. Treatments were replicated four times per field in a completely randomized block design, blocked by E. conspersus aggregation patterns within the field. Canopy samples were conducted one and two weeks post-treatment to assess E. conspersus mortality. Pre-harvest fruit samples were taken to assess damage between treatments. Mortality and fruit damage means were compared between early and late maturing fields. Results validated the E. conspersus phenology model and established the early season trap peak as a reliable degree-day biofix under commercial conditions.
Species 1: Heteroptera Pentatomidae Euschistus conspersus (consperse stink bug)
Keywords: phenology model validation, pheromone trap biofix
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