We collected an EF-1alpha data set for resolving the family-level phylogenetic relationships in bees. Our data set consisted of >1600 bp of aligned nucleotide sites for all the subfamilies and tribes of the short-tongued bee families (Colletidae, Stenotritidae, Halictidae, Andrenidae, Melittidae), a sample of the long-tongued bee families (Megachilidae and Apidae), as well as sphecid outgroups. Analyzing our data set by parsimony and maximum likelihood provides new insights into the family and subfamily-level phylogeny of bees. First, our data set provides strong support for the sister-group relationship between Stenotritidae and Colletidae. Second, our data set failed to support monophyly of Melittidae, a result consistent with the most recent morphological studies of ST bee phylogeny (Alexander & Michener 1995). This study presents the first analysis of family level bee phylogeny based on single-copy nuclear gene sequences.
Keywords: bees, phylogeny
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